Sonderstaffel Kaatsch: August￐October 1944

2–6 January 1944

What the British called “Fighter Detachment 1.(F)/128 — Brest” intended to send five Fw 190s out over the coast at 10.03 hrs., returning between 11.30 and noon. A second mission proposed for later in the morning was called off. Next day, four Fw 190s were due out at 09.48, bound for “14 West 891” on a flight due to last 90–120 minutes; another four were to set out at 14.08 hrs.

On the 4th the intention was for five aircraft to take off at 15.00 hrs. from “14 West 5967” (presumably Lanvéoc) and cross the coast at the customary point, “14 West 5959”, three minutes later. Once again were due to return within 1½–2 hours. Effort increased the following day with two flights planned, each six strong, from 09.03 and 11.18 hrs. respectively. The first was to go as far as 15 West 8055 (in the Western Approaches), the second “to westward.”

At 02.37 hrs., Halifax of No. 58 Sqn. dropped six depth charges on U-415 (Oblt. Herbert Werner) about 160 km SSW of Brest. The submarine fired back before diving but it had suffered damage and cover by Ju 88s was promised from first light. It is clear whether this materialsed but Fw 190s had taken off of 07.12 hrs. to assist the stricken boat. The Staffel flew more patrols during the day: by six Focke-Wulfs at 07.45 and four more at 13.33 hrs. This was the last that British codebreakers and radio monitors were to hear of 1./SAGr. 128 for more than three weeks.

28–29 January 1944

Notice was given of two patrols on the 28th” by six Fw 190s from Brest-Lanvéoc at noon and by two more from the same airfield at 13.35 hrs. Next day five were to fly out at 07.15 hrs.

1 February 1944

A message was sent to the Technical Officer of I./ZG 1 confirming that an Fw 190 G-3 (WNr. 160337) had been taken over from "G.A.F. Station (smudge) Land."

Note: British Intelligence understood the addressee to be I./ZG 1 and from a later message it seems likely that Lanvéoc in Brittany, the 10. Staffel’s home, was the land station in question.

4 February 1944

The Technical Officer of I./ZG 1 was told that a Fw 190 G-3 (WNr. 160821, “8”) was being handed over to the Luftwaffe land aircraft workshop at Brest-South. At 10.27 hrs. the same day, "fighter detachment 1/128" reported that this aircraft had stalled while landing at Brest from an “air screening” sortie (presumably for naval forces). The Focke-Wulf had touched down violently and broken the diagonal bracing strut of its left oleo leg. Damage to the airframe was assessed at 8–10% and a replacement was “urgently necessary.” Leutnant Heinz Bichler emerged uninjured, however. Presumably his aircraft had been one of the six that were up at 09.50 GMT for a flight to the West, although if so it returned earlier than originally intended.

11 February 1944

Today’s patrol was to take off at 10.35 hrs., fly to “14 West 58 and 68” and return within the usual timescale.

14 February 1944

At 13.07 hours on 14 February, an Fw 190 (WNr. 1466, “+10”) was coming in to land at Brest-South after bombing practice. Failure of an electrical circuit meant that its flaps would not come down and it landed at too high a speed. The aircraft itself was about 10% damaged—and again its replacement was urgently necessary—but pilot Ltn. Heinrich Greuner was unhurt.

19 February 1944

The 1./SAG 128 was deleted from a Fliegerführer Atlantik signals list and 10./ZG 1 was added. The British Government Code and Cypher School deduced from this that 10./ZG 1 was the “fighter detachment” renamed. This view was reinforced by the knowledge that the “new” unit was based at the same airfield, Brest-South.

25 February 1944

A patrol by four Fw 190s from 07.03 hrs. was thought by the British to be covering the return to St. Nazaire of U-714 (Oblt. Hans-Joachim Schwebcke). This boat was carrying the survivors of U-545 (Kptlt. Gert Mannesmann) which been attacked on 10 February by two Wellingtons (from Nos. 407 (RCAF) and 612 Sqns.). Despite shooting the Canadian machine down, U-545 had been crippled and was scutttled after the other boat arrived to rescue her men.

2 March 1944

On 2 March, Fliegerführer Atlantik announced that four Fw 190s were going to cross the coast at 07.03 hours and only 100 m. altitude. They were due back between 90 minutes and two hours later at the same height and place. That operation was then cancelled but rescheduled for 13.03, all other details remaining the same. The profile of this mission suggests that it too was to provide screening for naval units. The Operational Watch report for the day, which drew on Y-Service information as well as ULTRA, gave the following sorties:

09.00: 4 Fw 190

11.00: 2 Fw 190

13.00: 4 Fw 190

Each patrol lasted about two hours, so cover was essentially continuous.

6 March 1944

On the 6th, four Fw 190 were due to cross the coast at 08.03, returning between 09.30 and 10.00 hrs.

14 March 1944

The 10./ZG 1 (now subordinated to X. Fliegerkorps) reported to a Senior Signals Officer that six of its aircraft were equipped with FuG 25A IFF sets.

30 March 1944

A report which rather perplexed British Intelligence revealed that five Fw 190s, two officer and four NCO pilots of 10./ZG 1 had left Lyon-Bron along with six non-commissioned and enlisted technical personnel. The analysts had seen no evidence of any prior transfer away from Brest-South where 10./ZG 1 had last been located.

11 April 1944

On 11 April, Fw. Rudolf Schoenbach was recommended for the Iron Cross First Class, having completed 118 Fw 190 sorties: 105 over the Atlantic and 13 against French Resistance forces on the Savoie Plateau. That operation appears to have been the Staffel’s swansong, British Intelligence detecting no further Biscay patrols by its Fw 190s during April. The unit did lose an Fw 44 (W.Nr. 1564) in a crash landing on the 11th, however.

NOTE: In Bloody Biscay (Crècy, 1997) Chris Goss identifies this a 9. Staffel aircraft, stating that Ltn. Klaus Uhsemann (pilot) and Ogefr. Heinrich Barnasch (ground crew) were killed in the crash. Both men are buried at Berneuil, although according to War Graves data Barnasch died on the 11th at Saujon (10 km NE Royan) whereas Uhsemann died on 12 April at Saintes, suggesting that he was taken to hospital there and died the day after the crash.

19 April 1944

On 19 April, Hptm. Georg Borchert (Kapitän of 10./ZG 1) handed over his Staffel’s personnel and equipment “in good order” to III./ZG 1 for the building up of its 9. Staffel. A detailed strength return from ZG 1 on the 11th had mentioned neither the 9. nor the 10. Staffeln. Borchert himself went on to serve with 4./JG 2.

navtagbt

SOURCES

These are a few incidents in the unit’s life between January and April 1944, deciphered from sporadic Luftwaffe signals traffic as well as interception of ordinary wireless traffic.

All times are GMT.

U-boats and their captains have been identified thanks to uboat.net. There is a great deal more about 10./ZG 1 and its predecessors on Bookie's Fw 190/Ta 152 page.


© Nick Beale 2006–15

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